Surveys show that religion and spirituality play a central role in the lives of most of the population in human experience. Gallup (1989) found that…
Posts tagged as “drug addiction”
Surveys show that religion and spirituality play a central role in the lives of most of the population in human experience. Gallup (2004) found that 59% of adults nationwide say religion is a very important part of their lives. An additional 26% of Americans say religion is fairly important to them. Just 15% of respondents say religion is not very important. About two-thirds of Americans, 64%, belong to a church or synagogue. The religious and spiritual dimensions of culture were found to be among the most important factors that structure human experience, beliefs, values, behavior, and illness (Browning et al., 1990 James, 1961 Krippner and Welch, 1992).
Researchers however, report that some individuals seem to get fanatical about thier religion and develop maladaptive behaviors. Members of the American Psychological Association reported that at least one in six of their clients presented issues that involve religion or spirituality (Shafranske and Maloney, 1990). In another study, 29% of psychologists agreed that religious issues are important in the treatment of all or many of their clients (Bergin and Jensen, 1990, p. 3). Psychotherapy can sometimes be effective in treating religious problems. Robinson (1986) noted, "Some patients have troublesome conflicts about religion that could probably be resolved through the process of psychotherapy" (p.22).
Repeated research studies have revealed that secular efforts at rehabilitation have been unsuccessful in preventing recidivism. Not one of the various approaches to psychological counseling has been able to demonstrate success statistically in helping inmates rehabilitate. Among nearly 300,000 prisoners released in 15 states in 1994, 67.5% were re-arrested within 3-years. A study of 1983 releases estimated 62.5% (Langan and Levin, Bureau of Justice Statistics, June 2002).
Historically, this has been true according to the publication of The Effectiveness of Correctional Treatment (Lipton, Martinson, & Wilks,1975), which highlighted the controversy as to whether correctional treatment reduces recidivism. This review examined a variety of treatments (e.g., individual and group psychotherapy and counseling, intensive casework, and skill development) and reported the results on a number of different outcome criteria (e.g., adjustment to prison life, vocational success, recidivism rate). The relationship between any single treatment or combination of programs and recidivism rate was far from being convincing. In a review of the Lipton study, Martinson concluded that "with few isolated exceptions, the rehabilitative efforts that have been reported so far have had no appreciable effect on recidivism."